KVM/Qemu VMs with a multi-screen Spice console – VI – remote access with remote-viewer and TLS encryption

In my series on various methods to access a Spice console of a VM I have already covered two remote scenarios in an Intranet based on remote-viewer and SSH:

  • Scenario 1: remote-viewer is run on the KVM/Qemu server and accesses the Qemu-hypervisor over a Unix socket. The user at the remote client-system opens a "ssh -X" or "ssh -XC" session to the server, starts remote-viewer there and uses the graphical output data via the client's X-server. Audio requires a reverse SSH tunnel for Pulseaudio ( "ssh -X -R 44713:localhost:4713" ).
  • Scenario 2: remote-viewer is started on the remote client-system. A Spice and VM-specific TCP-port (TCP socket) on the server is used for the transfer of video + audio data. Security can be achieved by establishing a SSH tunnel with port-forwarding and further user-related SSH-restrictions.

See
KVM/Qemu VMs with a multi-screen Spice console – V – remote access via remote-viewer, a network port and a SSH-tunnel
KVM/Qemu VMs with a multi-screen Spice console – IV – remote access via SSH, remote-viewer and a Unix socket
KVM/Qemu VMs with a multi-screen Spice console – III – local access with remote-viewer via a Unix socket
KVM/Qemu VMs with a multi-screen Spice console – II – local access with remote-viewer via a network port
KVM/Qemu VMs with a multi-screen Spice console – I – Overview over local and remote access methods

Security regarding an encrypted data transfer, user authentication and port or socket access was achieved via SSH in both scenarios, plus ACLs in case of the first scenario. A critical point in both scenarios was data compression. SSH compression (=gzip) had a palpable negative impact on the responsiveness of the VM's desktop in the Spice windows. However, data compression offered via Spice options did not diminish the performance - at least it could not be felt.

In this article we have a look at yet another scenario for remote-viewer: Spice is this time combined with TLS encryption. However, in this post, we use TLS for data encryption, only, and not yet for client-authentication. Client authentication methods in combination with TLS and remote-viewer will be the topic of the next article.

We use the same systems as in the last articles: A KVM/Qemu server host "MySRV" with a Leap 15.2 OS on it, a test-VM "debianx" with a Kali-OS on it and a client-system "MyLAP" (a laptop with a Leap 15.2 OS). On the KVM/Qemu host our meanwhile familiar user "uvma" is used to start the VM "debianx" for us with the help of virt-manager. On the client-system "MyLAP", instead, a user "myself" will start remote-viewer.

Schematic drawing

The following sketch shows what we want to achieve:

The Qemu-hypervisor shall use a TLS server-key and a X509-server-certificate to encrypt all application data transferred in our Intranet between the server and the remote-viewer application on the client-system. This should include all data channels of the Spice protocol.

TLS CA, server certificates and RSA-keys

A sound TLS setup requires at least a CA, a CA-certificate, a server-certificate for the KVM/Qemu-server and a file with the private key of an asymmetric (RSA) key-pair. This brings us to the question: What tools can we use on a Leap-system to create such certificates for our private network?

On a Linux system there are, of course the OpenSSL libraries together with the so called "certtool", a CLI-tool. You get the latter on Leap 15.2 by installing the "gnutls" RPM from the Leap15.2-Update repository. A documentation for the creation of CA, server and client TLS certificates and related key-pairs with certtool is given on the following web-pages:
https://libvirt.org/tlscerts.html
https://qemu-project.gitlab.io/qemu/system/tls.html.

Personally, I prefer a graphical tool to keep an overview about my own CAs and related server-certificates. As Opensuse never replaced their YaST CA-tool after they changed to Ruby as the programming platform for YaST we have to look elsewhere.

A very good tool which provides a lot of options is "XCA". You find it in the package "xca" on a Leap 15.2 system. It is intuitive to use, offers a lot of options and its "help" documentation is very good - if you already know something about the differences and requirements of certificates. It offers suitable templates for CA-, server- and client-certificates. For a step-by-step description of how to create certificates see section 14 in the help functionality. Other tutorials for certificate creation with "xca" can be found in th following PDFs
http://help.mguard.com/ pdf /en / mguard8/ AppNotes/ AH EN X.509 CERT XCA 108396 en 00
http://evardsson.github.io/ s3c3/ Generating, signing and exporting keys and certificates with XCA

Another older tool, which I still use, is TinyCA. The following image shows a test example (I have no such net nor server as displayed).

Its templates are simpler than those of "xca"; the options are also a bit more limited, but sufficient for private purposes. Opensuse provides a RPM "tinyca2" in its standard repositories. I have written some blog posts about it; see: TinyCA2 as a replacement for YaST’s CA-tools on Opensuse Leap servers with TLS/SSL – I and two later posts.
Please, be aware of the fact that you need to apply additional patches to get SHA-256 and SHA-512 capabilities. See the named post about it. You should be able with my descriptions to create a server certificate for your KVM/Qemu-host. Also see TinyCA2 as a replacement for YaST’s CA-tools on Opensuse Leap servers with TLS/SSL – II for a description into which directory the CA-certificate files should be placed on a Leap 15.x OS.

For the rest of the present article I assume the following:
You have created a CA, a CA-certificate, a X509-compatible server-certificate and a RSA based private key for the server. You do this on whatever system you use for the administration of your CA. You have also exported the certificate data and the key into files with the "pem"-format and copied them (scp) to a save place under the control of root on your KVM/Qemu server host. In the end you should have the following files there:

  • ca-cert.pem
  • server-cert.pem
  • server-key.pem

Note that these specific file-names are important for the later Qemu-configuration. You should rename your files accordingly or make copies with these names. Note that the server-key file contains a private key - this file must be protected against unauthorized access during all steps of the configuration process and after.

Note also that the server-certificate should be set up with the FQDN of our KVM/Qemu-server: This is "mysrv.anraconc.de" for our test situation.

You must also place a copy of the CA-cert file onto the client-system(s) from which the Spice user later connects to the KVM-server. The "CA-cert"-file must in addition be known there as coming from a trustworthy CA. See a separate section below for the required measures on an Opensuse Leap system.

If you already had a CA and had already issued certificates in the past - can we reuse them? The answer is: Yes, you could. Personally, however, I prefer to issue a special dedicated server-certificate and keys for Qemu. One of the reasons is that the Qemu process must be able to read the server-key-file and it is run for a special user "qemu" and not root. But I do not want "qemu" to be able to read other server-keys used by completely other processes as e.g. for a web- or mysql-server.

Configuration of Qemu on the KVM-host for TLS connections

You remember from previous articles of this series that remote-viewer talks directly to the Qemu-hypervisor; it does not involve any libvirt layer. It is therefore no surprise that we need to configure Qemu itself such that it uses TLS. But which is the right configuration file to take? And where do we place our certificates and keys?

On a Leap 15.2 system we normally use the libvirt machinery to create and start Qemu-based VMs and the related Qemu-processes. Then we need to tell libvirt how to start a Qemu-process with the required correct options. The config-file to take in this case is "/etc/libvirt/qemu.conf" (see the 2nd article of this series).

[If you, by the way, are interested in the qemu-options and in particular the TLS options which can be used if and when you start a qemu-process manually see the qemu documentation, e.g. here and here.]

The named "qemu.conf"-file on our Leap based KVM/Qemu-server has multiple sections regarding TLS. The first main section covers the directories used for certificate and key-files. There you also find the file-names mentioned above. Later on you find an option to change the directory for Spice related certificates. We use this option.

For the time being we set the following parameters and un-comment the related lines:

# The following tells Qemu to use TLS for the encr<yption of Spice cahnnels 
spice_tls = 1  

# We need to specify a directory where we place the certifactes and key to be used  
spice_tls_x509_cert_dir = "/etc/pki/libvirt-spice"

That is all we need for this article. (As mentioned in a previous post: On systems with apparmor active one should also activate "security_default_confined = 1". But this no special TLS option).

Afterwards we have to copy our certificate- and key-files to "/etc/pki/libvirt-spice/".

Note again: It is obligatory to use the filenames given above. A VM would not start otherwise and Qemu would complain non-existing or unusable files.

What file access rights are required?
The certificates should only include public keys, so here we could grant others the "r"-right. The situation is different with the file "server-key.pem". It contains the server's private key - and probably in unencrypted form if we did not protect it by password.

Therefore, we need to restrict the read rights for this file. And here we are confronted with a small glitch in the Opensuse configuration - the apparmor settings allow the privileged libvirt-user who is allowed to start virsh or virt-manager to read the files - but not "qemu". A simple solution is

mysrv:~ # cd /etc/pki/libvirt-spice/
mysrv:/etc/pki/libvirt-spice # chmod 440 *
mysrv:/etc/pki/libvirt-spice # chown root.qemu * 
mysrv:/etc/pki/libvirt-spice # la
total 20
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 Apr 11 11:44 .
drwxr-xr-x 8 root root 4096 Feb 27 15:11 ..
-r--r----- 1 root qemu 2504 Feb 27 15:14 ca-cert.pem
-r--r----- 1 root qemu 2504 Apr 11 09:49 server-cert.pem
-r--r----- 1 root qemu 3243 Apr 11 09:49 server-key.pem
mysrv:/etc/pki/libvirt-spice # 

But from now on you should be careful during your experiments and check what members the group "qemu" has - on a Leap system it should only contain the user "qemu", nobody else!

The question remains whether you need the CA-cert-file for any other purposes on the KVM server. If so, please follow the advice given in the section for using the ca-cert-file on the client-system and apply them in an analogous way on the server.

You should restart the libvirtd-daemon to activate the changed options for the start of Qemu-based VMs via virsh or virt-manager in the future.

Configuring Qemu to use TLS is NOT the same as configuring libvirt to use TLS!

Just a warning:
Readers who work totally libvirt-centered and use virt-viewer instead remote-viewer should at this point of reading become very clear about the fact that configuring Qemu for using TLS with Spice is something else than configuring libvirtd to use TLS for external connections. The Opensuse documentation at
doc.opensuse.org/ documentation/ leap/ virtualization/ html/ book-virt/ cha-libvirt-connect.html
refers to the latter. The settings to activate TLS for libvirtd and libvirt-tools use a different directory scheme and different file-names in comparison to what we did above. Also the required file access to certificates and private keys can be limited to root for pure libvitr-based tools - but not in our scenario.

Configuring the VM to use TLS with Spice

So far Qemu is prepared to support TLS on the KVM-server - if and when the use of TLS is requested. We, therefore, still have to define that TLS should be used for connections to the Spice console of our specific test-VM "debianx".

Actually, we have to define a special network port for this purpose. In the XML-configuration file for the VM we change the Spice settings :

    
    <graphics type='spice' port='20001' tlsPort='20002' autoport='no' keymap='de' defaultMode='any' >
      <listen type='address' address='0.0.0.0'/>
      <image compression='auto_glz'/>
      <gl enable='no'/>
    </graphics>
    <sound model='ich6'>
      <address type='pci' domain='0x0000' bus='0x00' slot='0x04' function='0x0'/>
    </sound>
    <video>
      <model type='virtio' heads='2' primary='yes'>
        <acceleration accel3d='yes'/>
      </model>
      <address type='pci' domain='0x0000' bus='0x00' slot='0x02' function='0x0'/>
    </video>

The first change in comparison to previous settings consists of a new attribute "tlsPort"
(Off topic: I use the same audio and video settings as before.)

Note:

The "tlsPort" - just as the the standard "port" - is specific for the VM.
For another VM you must define another "tlsPort".

The second change is the removal of the attribute "defaultMode". This allows us later to switch between TLS-secure and "insecure" access methods as we like. Remember that we always can make a insecure" connection (regrding a lack of TLS) secure at any time by building a SSH tunnel.

Some reader may ask why we did not set the default mode to "secure" and deleted the "port"-attribute. Well, if we were in a position in which we had tested the TLS configuration already and wanted to use TLS only in the future (and not SSH, for example) then we could make these changes, yes. But I keep the option of using a SSH-tunnel open. TLS is anyway the preferred option if the associated port is specified by the Spice client (here remote-viewer).

The reader certainly has noticed that I activated Spice image data compression. We made a good experience with it the other day.

How to deal with the CA-certificate on the Leap 15.2 client-system? Where to place it?

OpenSSL will validate the whole CA-chain when confronted with a server-certificate. It needs the CA-certificate for it. In addition it should trust the related public key - as the CA-root-certificate is self-signed. This means that we have to make the certificate of our private CA known to the client-system(s) - here MyLAP - on which we want to start a Spice client requesting a TLS encrypted connection from the KVM/Qemu-server.

Opensuse Leap systems are a bit picky about were to place the CA-certificates. To say it clearly: "/etc/ssl/certs" is the wrong place!

Any certificates unknown to Leap 15.2 will not survive a reboot there. They won't even survive a call of the "update-ca-certificate"-program, which would make the CA-certificate known to other programs as a usable and trustworthy one. So, placing the "ca-cert.pem"-file of our private CA into "/etc/ssl/certs" will lead to severe problems: It won't be found or won't be accepted during the start of remote-viewer on a client-system as MyLAP.

Note:

The right place for the certificate of our private CA on a Leap-system is "/etc/pki/trust/anchors/".

You should copy it there. By the way: You should use the name given to your CA initially - not necessarily the special file name used for Qemu on the KVM/Qmu server. In my case it is something like "anraconc-CA", thus "anraconc-CA.pem".

So, we perfom the following copy-process

CaSRV:~ # scp /root/.TinyCA/anraconc-CA/cacert.pem root@MyLAP:/etc/pki/trust/anchors/anraconc-CA.pem
Password: 

On MyLAP we then enter

mylap:/etc/pki/trust/anchors # la 
-r--r--r-- 1 root root  2540 Apr 11 11:11 anraconc-CA.pem
mylap:/etc/pki/trust/anchors # update-ca-certificates
mylap:/etc/pki/trust/anchors # la /var/lib/ca-certificates/openssl | grep anrac
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root    15 Apr 11 12:13 610c65bd.0 -> anraconc-CA.pem
-r--r--r-- 1 root root  2540 Apr 11 12:13 anraconc-CA.pem
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root    15 Apr 11 12:13 bfb4c341.0 -> anraconb-CA.pem

"update-ca-certificates" makes the CA-certificate system-wide. The look into "/var/lib/ca-certificates/openssl" just was a check for this.
That is all we have to do regarding certificates on the client.

Test of the TLS encrypted remote connection to the Spice console

We first open our firewalls for connection from MyLAP to port 20002 on MySRV. On our KVM/Qemu-host we then start the libvirtd-daemon again to cover all changes to Qemu and the VM. Afterward our privileged user "uvma" starts the VM "debianx" for us on the server. This should work without any problems - there should not be any errors regarding the TLS options and TLS files.

Then we have a brief look at https://libvirt.org/uri.html and https://www.spice-space.org/spice-user-manual.html to get an idea how we have to formulate our remote-viewer parameters for TLS:

myself@mylap:~> remote-viewer spice://mysrv.anraconc.de?tls-port=20002

(remote-viewer:29853): GSpice-WARNING **: 15:29:34.201: Warning no automount-inhibiting implementation available

with results that look very similar to what we have done in the last article. I omit the proof by screenshots as we would get no new information from them.

But did you notice a major difference besides the special way of specifying the TLS-port to use ?
We have to use the FQDN of the server!
Exactly in the form it was filled as the "common name" into the server-certificate! If we just used "mysrv" this would lead to an error message of OpenSSL - despite the fact that the short name can be resolved by a DNS server.
Note also that something like "remote-viewer spice://mysrv.anraconc.de:20002" will NOT work.

The required form of the command for remote-viewer with TLS is :

remote-viewer spice://FQDN_OF_KVM_HOST?tls-port=VM_SPECIFIC_PORT_NR

You should also test that the variant

myself@mylap:~> remote-viewer --spice-ca-file=/etc/pki/trust/anchors/anraconc-CA.pem  spice://mysrv.anraconc.de?tls-port=20002

works flawlessly.

Checking for encryption

A look at netstat on the server proves a connection to port 20002:

mysrv:~ # netstat -an | grep 20002
tcp        0      0 0.0.0.0:20002           0.0.0.0:*               LISTEN     
tcp        0      0 192.168.2.4:20002      192.168.2.22:36650      ESTABLISHED
tcp        0      0 192.168.2.4:20002      192.168.2.22:36646      ESTABLISHED
tcp        0      0 192.168.2.4:20002      192.168.2.22:36642      ESTABLISHED
tcp        0      0 192.168.2.4:20002      192.168.2.22:36648      ESTABLISHED
tcp        0      0 192.168.2.4:20002      192.168.2.22:36658      ESTABLISHED
tcp        0      0 192.168.2.4:20002      192.168.2.22:36656      ESTABLISHED
tcp        0      0 192.168.2.4:20002      192.168.2.22:36640      ESTABLISHED
tcp        0      0 192.168.2.4:20002      192.168.2.22:36644      ESTABLISHED
tcp        0      0 192.168.2.4:20002      192.168.2.22:36652      ESTABLISHED
tcp        0      0 192.168.2.4:20002      192.168.2.22:36654      ESTABLISHED
mysrv:~ # 

While this only shows that a connection to the right port is established. However, an additional look with wireshark shows you the TLS version (which it gets from protocol headers):

We see that TLS V1.3 is indeed used to encrypt the application data crossing port 20002.

Data transfer rates and responsiveness

The data transfer rates for the present scenario overall are very similar to the ones measured for the SSH-scenarios with Spice data compression. Maybe a tiny bit higher for TLS. But there are too many impact factors to really say this. The responsiveness of the window manager and single applications are excellent - as with the SSH scenario of the last article. I leave it to the reader to test it out on his own.

Does TLS encryption to the VM work locally, too?

An interesting question is whether we can have encryption locally on the KVM/Qemu-server, too. The answer is: Yes, but you still have to provide the FQDN of the server; the network request will nevertheless be handled over the "lo"-device. This at least enables you to test your VM settings locally. But local encryption could also be interesting in some multi-user scenarios.

Using different options for the defaultMode and the Spice data channels

Allowed values for the "defaultMode" attribute in the Spice configuration of the VM are "secure", "insecure" and "any". With "any" you can switch between encrypted and unencrypted access at any time by closing the Spice windows and opening them again with different settings for the remote-viewer. You should check which port is taken by looking at the output of e.g. netstat. Using "secure" will enforce TLS-encryption; if no sufficient certificates were in place the VM would not even start then.

An important feature regarding TLS is that you may define which Spice data channel should/must be encrypted. You find more information about this at https://libvirt.org/formatdomain.html#graphical-framebuffers. I quote from the documentation there:

When SPICE has both a normal and TLS secured TCP port configured, it can be desirable to restrict what channels can be run on each port. This is achieved by adding one or more elements inside the main element and setting the mode attribute to either secure or insecure. Setting the mode attribute overrides the default value as set by the defaultMode attribute. (Note that specifying any as mode discards the entry as the channel would inherit the default mode anyways.) Valid channel names include main, display, inputs, cursor, playback, record (all since 0.8.6 ); smartcard ( since 0.8.8 ); and usbredir ( since 0.9.12 ).

The example given in the libvirt documentation is:

    
<graphics type='spice' port='-1' tlsPort='-1' autoport='yes'>
  <channel name='main' mode='secure'/>
  <channel name='record' mode='insecure'/>
  <image compression='auto_glz'/>
  <streaming mode='filter'/>
  <clipboard copypaste='no'/>
  <mouse mode='client'/>
  <filetransfer enable='no'/>
  <gl enable='yes' rendernode='/dev/dri/by-path/pci-0000:00:02.0-render'/>
</graphics>

Off topic: You see that there are more options for Spice - e.g. the streaming parameter, which can be used for video-streaming. In a quiet minute the interested reader should have a look into the Spice documentation at
https://www.spice-space.org/spice-user-manual.html
and
https://qemu.readthedocs.io/en/latest/system/invocation.html
to get more information.

What about other security elements?

It is nice that we now are able to use a TLS encrypted connection for remote-viewer. But a noticeable disadvantage in comparison to the SSH-tunnel scenario of my last article is that we must keep the Spice TLS-port open and accessible on the server. In addition: Basic security measures on a server should also include some form of user authentication - and the access to the Spice console of a VM should be restricted to selected users. With the TLS-elements discussed above alone we cannot achieve this. So, you have to wait for yet another blog article.

In the meantime you can and should at least set a password for the Spice console:

    
<graphics type='spice' port='20001' tlsPort='20002' autoport='no' keymap='de' defaultMode='any' password='my_verysecret_pwd' >
..... 

See the 2nd article of this series about it.

Conclusion

It is relatively easy to configure a KVM/Qemu-server such that it encrypts Spice data with TLS. We tested this with a remote-viewer instance started on a client-system somewhere in our Intranet. A basic requirement is of course the creation of a private CA and certificates/keys. Tools like TinyCA or XCA help us with this.
As remote-viewer directly talks to the Qemu-emulator we had to configure libvirtd to enable dependent tools like "virsh" and "virt-manager" to start qemu-processes with the required parameters for TLS. This could be done via a few settings in the file "/etc/libvirt/qemu.conf".
This type of qemu-configuration differs from activating TLS for a remote access to libvirt-based tools themselves. As a consequence the private server-key to be used by the Qemu process must be made readable for the "qemu"-user.
The TLS setup for remote-viewer and Spice neither allowed for user authentication on the server nor for user-specific restrictions so far. In the next article

KVM/Qemu VMs with a multi-screen Spice console – VII – remote-viewer, qemu and SASL authentication

we shall, therefore, have a look at methods for user authentication combined with TLS.

Links

Qmu, Spice und TLS
https://qemu-project.gitlab.io/qemu/system/tls.html

https://www.libvirt.org/tlscerts.html

https://ravada.readthedocs.io/en/latest/docs/spice_tls.html

Spice + defaultMode
https://libvirt.org/formatdomain.html#video-devices

OpenSSL to check for a valid TLS certificate on a network port
https://tenable.force.com/s/article/Using-OpenSSL-to-verify-certificate-information-on-a-port

TinyCA2 as a replacement for YaST’s CA-tools on Opensuse Leap servers with TLS/SSL – III

I proceed with my article series on using TinyCA2 instead of YaST's CA-admin tools, whic are simply missing since Opensuse Leap 15.0. Which I regard as a shame by the way ...

In the first article

TinyCA2 as a replacement for YaST’s CA-tools on Opensuse Leap servers with TLS/SSL – I

I briefly introduced the user interface of TinyCA2. We used it to create a new CA and a server certificate.

In the second article

TinyCA2 as a replacement for YaST’s CA-tools on Opensuse Leap servers with TLS/SSL – II

we found out where to place the new CA's root certificate on an Opensuse Leap system to make it available system wide and permanently. We also used the newly created server certificate for the server "myserv.anraconc.de" for all services on this server - and placed the necessary files into "/etc/ssl/servercerts".

We then discussed the reconfiguration of an Apache2-, an OpenLDAP- and the SSSD-service as examples of how to adapt to the CA and certificate changes. All the required operations on "myserv" were local copy and file editing operations - as "myserv" was the server for administering our new CA, too.

In this third article we, however, look at a second independent server "mymail.anraconc.de" for IMAP/SMTP-services. This server needs its own TLS/SSL-server-certificate. In lack of other tools we shall use scp to deploy the necessary files. I shall further discuss how to reconfigure "cyrus" and "postfix". Note that these services do not only offer their own TLS/SSL connections to their clients; at the same time they themselves will work as LDAP-clients, i.e. as clients for the OpenLDAP service on server "myserv". Therefore we must adapt the SSSD-service on "mymail", too.

Placing a TinyCA2 server certificate on a mail server with cyrus, saslautd and postfix

Our first step is to use TinyCA2 on our server "myserv" to create a second server certificate for the server "mymail" with the common name "mymail.anraconc.de". This is done exactly as described in my first article for server "myserv". We export the related certificate and the key files to "/etc/certs" on "myserv" and limit access to the private key file. We export the key file with its password - and strip it off afterwards:

myserv:/etc/certs # openssl rsa -in /etc/certs/mymail-anraconc-key.pem -out /etc/certs/mymail-anraconc-key_new.pem
Enter pass phrase for /etc/certs/mymail-anraconc-key.pem:
writing RSA key
myserv:/etc/certs # cp /etc/certs/mymail-anraconc-key_new.pem /etc/certs/mymail-anraconc-key.pem

Now, we look for some export/import mechanism for deploying "server certificates" from our sytem with the CA administration tool TinyCA2 to other systems. Unfortunately, TinyCA2 does not offer such a client/server feature for certificate deployment within a network. We are forced to transfer our certificates manually 🙁 .

I assume that we have a ssh-connection form our sever "myserv" to our mail-server "mymail".

myserv:/etc # scp /etc/certs/mymail-anraconc-cert.pem root@mymail:/etc/certs
Password: 
mymail-anraconc-cert.pem                   100% 2147     1.5MB/s   00:00    
myserv:/etc # scp /etc/certs/mymail-anraconc-key.pem root@mymail:/etc/certs
Password: 
mymail-anraconc-key.pem                    100% 1679     1.4MB/s   00:00    
myserv:/etc # scp /etc/certs/anraconc-CA.pem root@mymail:/etc/certs
Password: 
anraconc-CA.pem                           100% 2504     1.7MB/s   00:00    
myserv:/etc # 

Note that I transferred the CA certificate, too.

On "mymail":

mymail:~ # cp /etc/certs/anraconc-CA.pem /etc/pki/trust/anchors/
mymail:~ # cp -r /etc/ssl/servercerts/ /etc/ssl/servercerts.orig
mymail:~ # cp /etc/certs/mymail-anraconc-cert.pem /etc/ssl/servercerts/servercert.pem
mymail:~ # cp /etc/certs/mymail-anraconc-key.pem /etc/ssl/servercerts/serverkey.pem
mymail:~ # chmod 600 /etc/ssl/servercerts/serverkey.pem 
mymail:~ # 

If you read my second article of this series these steps need no further explanation.

Reconfiguring sssd, cyrus and postfix for the new SSL/TLS certificates

First, the sssd-service configuration in the file "/etc/sssd/sssd.conf" has to be updated on mymail:

.....
[pam]
[domain/default]
ldap_uri = ldap://myserv.anraconc.de
ldap_search_base = dc=anraconc,dc=de
ldap_schema = rfc2307bis
id_provider = ldap
ldap_user_uuid = entryuuid
ldap_group_uuid = entryuuid
ldap_id_use_start_tls = False
enumerate = True
cache_credentials = False
ldap_tls_cacertdir = /etc/ssl/certs
ldap_tls_cacert = /etc/ssl/certs/anraconc-CA.pem
chpass_provider = ldap
auth_provider = ldap
...
....

Note that the ldap_uri is the same (!) as on "myserv"! See the last article!

We then change "/etc/ldap.conf" - this enables any clients :

uri     ldap://myserv.anraconc.de
base    dc=anraconc,dc=de
nss_map_attribute       uniqueMember member
ssl     start_tls
tls_cacertdir   /etc/ssl/certs
tls_cacertfile  /etc/ssl/certs/anraconc-CA.pem              
pam_password    exop
pam_filter      objectClass=posixAccount
...

Afterwards we change the file "/etc/imapd.conf" - which is a central piece for a working cyrus-based IMAP-server:

....
# LMTP
# ****
lmtp_overquota_perm_failure: no
lmtp_downcase_rcpt: yes

# SASL
# ****
allowplaintext: yes
sasl_pwcheck_method: saslauthd
sasl_mech_list: PLAIN LOGIN

# TLS
# ****
tls_key_file: /etc/ssl/servercerts/serverkey.pem
tls_cert_file: /etc/ssl/servercerts/servercert.pem
tls_ca_file: /etc/ssl/certs/anraconc-CA.pem
...
...

You see that we saslauthd as an intermediate link of imap to authenticate (cyrus) users via LDAP (on another server).

Important Note:
The system users "mail" and "cyrus" must get read access to "/etc/ssl/servercerts/serverkey.pem" in case we use exactly one server-wide server certificate/key for all services. Otherwise TLS connections (starttls) cannot be provided for the imap/cyrus-service.

One solution for this problem is to use ACL-settings analogously to what we have done above for user "ldap" on the server "myserv". See my last article ...

For SMTP we also need to change "/etc/postfix/main.cf":

...
....
 Client for the local SMTP-Server
#---------------------------------

# Changed by admin according to local sasl politics
#----------------------------------------------------
smtpd_sasl_auth_enable = yes
smtpd_sasl_security_options = noanonymous
smtpd_sasl_type = cyrus
# Postfix > 2.3
smtpd_sasl_path = smtpd
broken_sasl_auth_clients = yes


# Local SMTP server as a client for Relay servers 
#------------------------------------------------
# Inserted by admin - 06.01.2017
#-----------------------------------

smtp_sasl_auth_enable = yes
smtp_sasl_password_maps = hash:/etc/postfix/sasl_passwd
smtp_sasl_security_options = noanonymous
...
....
############################################################
# TLS stuff
############################################################
relay_clientcerts =
#tls_random_source = dev:/dev/urandom

smtp_use_tls = yes
#smtp_tls_loglevel = 0
#smtp_enforce_tls = no
smtp_tls_policy_maps = hash:/etc/postfix/tls_policy
smtp_tls_CApath = /etc/ssl/certs/
smtp_tls_CAfile = /etc/ssl/certs/anraconc-CA.pem

smtp_tls_session_cache_database =

smtpd_use_tls = yes
smtpd_tls_auth_only = yes
smtpd_tls_loglevel = 2
smtpd_tls_CAfile = /etc/ssl/certs/anraconc-CA.pem
smtpd_tls_cert_file = /etc/ssl/servercerts/servercert.pem
smtpd_tls_key_file = /etc/ssl/servercerts/serverkey.pem
smtpd_tls_ask_ccert = no
smtpd_tls_received_header = yes

...
...

You saw again that I use saslauth for authentication. But, actually there is nothing to be changed in the saslauthd configuration in comparison to a previously working solution.

Finally, we restart all our services:

mymail:/etc/sasl2 # systemctl restart sssd.service
mymail:/etc/sasl2 # systemctl restart cyrus.service
mymail:/etc/sasl2 # systemctl restart postfix.service
mymail:/etc/sasl2 # systemctl restart saslauthd.service 

This should work flawlessly, if we have done everything correctly.

Testing with Kmail and other mail clients from client systems

Before you can start testing with email-clients you need to transfer the new CA's certificate to your client system's directory "/etc/pki/trust/anchors/". Do not forget to import "anraconc-CA.pem" on all other clients that build up TLS or SSL connections to your reconfigured servers, too. And put the CA certificate into "/etc/pki/trust/anchors/" - if your clients are Opensuse Leap 15.x systems.

If you need any direct LDAP client services form your client system to the LDAP service on "myserv" you should take care of the necessary cahnges in the local "/etc/ldap.conf" and the "/etc/sssd/sssd.conf" !

Otherwise you should have a look at Kmail's or your email's IMAP account configuration:

Note that you should give the name of the mail server in its FQDN-form to avoid messages on certificates not fitting the server. And:

Clicking on the button "Automatisch erkennen" (or whatever the button is named in English ..."Automatic detection ?) should offer you STARTTLS now. If you get any messages about "no connection could be enabled" your configuration of the mail server still has deficits - either in offering TLS/SSL encryption or in its role as a client to the OpenLDAP server. You would have to analyze status and log information of all involved servers then.

You have to do similar things on other email-clients. I was lucky - things started to operate smoothly again on my mail clients.

Conclusion

It really is a problem that the SuSE people did not replace the YaST module for the administration of TLS/SSL CAs and server certificates by a Ruby counterpart with the start of Leap 15.0. Especially as Opensuse works as a basic platform for SLES 🙁 . Also SuSE previously often used a policy to allow for server wide certificates - i.e. one certificate for all services on a server instance. The deployment of such certificates issued by a central CA was supported by an export/import mechanism of YaST, which took care of password-protected keys by stripping of password and setting the right read access rights on the destination servers.

If you want to use TinyCA2 as a CA administration tool you are confronted with a series of challenges - among others the question of access rights of system users to certificate's key files. In addition you have to place the CA's root certificate at a proper location on Opensuse Leap systems (/etc/pki/trust/anchors) to make it permanently available.

TinyCA2 - which I had a look at - is relatively old. The last Gitub change appeared in 2015. Nevertheless it does its job to create a CA, sub-CAs and server certificates (as well as client certificates) - and to revoke them if required. It also offers a simple local export mechanism for certifictaes and keys into standard file formats - as pem. However, this is it.

You need a patch to include SHA256 or SHA512 - which is a must these days. There are some flaws with the simple GUI, but these you can work around related problems - if you know about them. And: TinyCA2 will not help you to deploy the certificates/keys on your server or client systems. Not even a simple import mechanism for a server wide "server certificate plus key" issued by the CA is offered on target servers. So, if you do not want to invest time into your own deployment scripts you may come to the conclusion that TinyCA2 is not suited well for large networks with many servers. In my case I fount it applicable for a dozen servers - but not more. Too much handwork ....

If you consider to use TinyCA2 as a replacement for YaST's CA administration tools most of your work will be to deploy the TLS/SSL certificates/keys onto your server systems and to reconfigure all services to use these certificates for TLS, StartTLS and SSL connections.

On Opensuse systems the deployment of the CA root certificate within the bunch of permanently trusted CA certificates requires some knowledge about the relevant directory to make the CA certificate available in a central directory as "/etc/ssl/certs" - which may be used by legacy applications. The access rights to a server certificates key file may pose some special problems - you may have to test which system user associated with your services requires read rights.

There are actually several ways how to handle the read access topic for the private certificate keys. I have shown how to use ACLs for this purpose. My recommendation, however, is to use separate certificates and related keys for all services - even if they reside on the same server and despite consequences for your network and DNS configuration due to unique FQGNs and common names. You never know what can happen to a service specific user during attacks. If one certificate/key gets corrupted the others may still survive. Actually, this could be a reason for encapsulating services even more in form of LXC containers. But this is a different story ...

Good luck with Opensuse and TinyCA2 !

 

TinyCA2 as a replacement for YaST’s CA-tools on Opensuse Leap servers with TLS/SSL – II

In my last article on TinyCA2

TinyCA2 as a replacement for YaST’s CA-tools on Opensuse Leap servers with TLS/SSL – I

I discussed how to open an new CA and how to create a server certificate (plus private key) with SHA256 as the preferred hashing algorithm. We saw that TinyCA2 offers an option to export the certificate's private key with or without password. I also gave an "openssl" command for stripping a key off its password later on - even if it was exported with a password in the beginning.

We have followed a policy of using a server wide TLS/SSL-certificate for all TLS/SSL-based services run on a server - in our case on a server "myserv.anraconc.de". Therefore we have copied the certificate's pem file and the key's pem file to the directory "/etc/ssl/servercerts" with file names "servercert.pem" and "serverkey.pem".

In addition we naively copied the CA certificate as file "anraconc-CA.pem" into the central directory "/etc/ssl/certs" which contains (links to) all trusted certificates on an Opensuse system.

If the private key was exported with a password we have a problem with automated system and service starts: As the private key of a server certificate must in some cases also by system users starting and running services we would be asked to provide a password interactively, whenever the service is started - e.g. during system startup. To avoid such a situation we need a private key without password - hence we have to deal carefully with read access rights. Actually, we need to find out which services - not started or run by root - need the access right for its special system user. For the time being we took away all read rights for "others" from the server key for the system "myserv".

In this second article I discuss the changes to be made to the configuration of two services - Apache2 and OpenLDAP on server "myserv". After a test we shall detect that Opensuse rebuilds the contents of "/etc/ssl/certs" during a reboot - and references of our services to the CA's certificate will fail. I shall show where to save our CA certificate to make it permanently available.

Re-configuring a local Apache service for the new CA and the changed server certificate

As I had used a server wide certificate on "myserv" already at times when YaST's CA-administration was still available, I expected that the required changes to the service configuration would be limited to providing the path to the new CA certificate. The example of the Apache service proved that this really was true.

In my case I use virtual domains with my Apache server for Intranet sites. The configuration of the SSL-setup then is to be found in either a central file as "/etc/apache2/ssl-global.conf" or in "/etc/apache2/vhosts.d/vhost-ssl.conf" for individual domains. I used the latter file. I shall only show the most simple case here - with just a main standard domain associated on an Opensuse system with the directory "/srv/www/htdocs". Other domains would get the same SSL settings (if you do not plan to issue different certificates for each intranet domain):

<VirtualHost *:443>

        #  General setup for the virtual host
        DocumentRoot "/srv/www/htdocs/"
        ServerName myserv
        #ServerAdmin webmaster@example.com
        ErrorLog /var/log/apache2/error_log
        TransferLog /var/log/apache2/access_log

        #   SSL Engine Switch:
        #   Enable/Disable SSL for this virtual host.
        SSLEngine on

        #   SSL Cipher Suite:
        #   List the ciphers that the client is permitted to negotiate.
        #   See the mod_ssl documentation for a complete list.
        SSLCipherSuite ALL:!ADH:!EXPORT56:RC4+RSA:+HIGH:+MEDIUM:+LOW:+SSLv2:+EXP:+eNULL

        #   Server Certificate:
        #   Point SSLCertificateFile at a PEM encoded certificate.  If
        #   the certificate is encrypted, then you will be prompted for a
        #   pass phrase.  
        SSLCertificateFile /etc/ssl/servercerts/servercert.pem

        #   Server Private Key:
        #   If the key is not combined with the certificate, use this
        #   directive to point at the key file.  
        SSLCertificateKeyFile /etc/ssl/servercerts/serverkey.pem

        #   Server Certificate Chain:
        #   Point SSLCertificateChainFile at a file containing the
        #   concatenation of PEM encoded CA certificates which form the
        #   certificate chain for the server certificate. 
        SSLCertificateChainFile /etc/ssl/certs/anraconc-CA.pem
        #
        # NOTE: here you should later on use the Common Name of your CA certificate !
        # See below ! 
.....
......

Note that I referred to the CA certificate at "/etc/ssl/certs" in the CA chain setting. The server certificate and key files are referred to already by the standard paths "/etc/ssl/servercerts/servercert.pem" and "/etc/ssl/servercerts/serverkey.pem".

With this changed configuration file we restart our Apache service:

myserv:/etc/apache2/vhosts.d # vi vhost-ssl.conf
myserv:/etc/apache2/vhosts.d # systemctl restart apache2.service
myserv:/etc/apache2/vhosts.d # systemctl status apache2.service
● apache2.service - The Apache Webserver
   Loaded: loaded (/usr/lib/systemd/system/apache2.service; enabled; vendor preset: disabled)
   Active: active (running) since Sat 2019-07-20 15:37:29 CEST; 11s ago
  Process: 20435 ExecStop=/usr/sbin/start_apache2 -DSYSTEMD -DFOREGROUND -k graceful-stop (code=exited, status=0/SUCCESS)
 Main PID: 20443 (httpd-prefork)
   Status: "Total requests: 0; Current requests/sec: 0; Current traffic:   0 B/sec"
    Tasks: 6
   CGroup: /system.slice/apache2.service
           ├─20443 /usr/sbin/httpd-prefork -DSYSCONFIG -DSSL -C PidFile /var/run/httpd.pid -C Include /etc/apache2/sysconfig.d//loadmodule.conf -C Include /etc/a>
           ├─20449 /usr/sbin/httpd-prefork -DSYSCONFIG -DSSL -C PidFile /var/run/httpd.pid -C Include /etc/apache2/sysconfig.d//loadmodule.conf -C Include /etc/a>
           ├─20450 /usr/sbin/httpd-prefork -DSYSCONFIG -DSSL -C PidFile /var/run/httpd.pid -C Include /etc/apache2/sysconfig.d//loadmodule.conf -C Include /etc/a>
           ├─20451 /usr/sbin/httpd-prefork -DSYSCONFIG -DSSL -C PidFile /var/run/httpd.pid -C Include /etc/apache2/sysconfig.d//loadmodule.conf -C Include /etc/a>
           ├─20452 /usr/sbin/httpd-prefork -DSYSCONFIG -DSSL -C PidFile /var/run/httpd.pid -C Include /etc/apache2/sysconfig.d//loadmodule.conf -C Include /etc/a>
           └─20453 /usr/sbin/httpd-prefork -DSYSCONFIG -DSSL -C PidFile /var/run/httpd.pid -C Include /etc/apache2/sysconfig.d//loadmodule.conf -C Include /etc/a>

Jul 20 15:37:29 myserv systemd[1]: Starting The Apache Webserver...
Jul 20 15:37:29 myserv start_apache2[20443]: [Sat Jul 20 15:37:29.522427 2019] [so:warn] [pid 20443] AH01574: module authn_core_module is already loaded, skipping
Jul 20 15:37:29 myserv systemd[1]: Started The Apache Webserver.

Obviously, only root needs to read "/etc/ssl/servercerts/serverkey.pem" for starting the service - although multiple "httpd-prefork" processes later on are run by the system user "wwwrun". However, the first one is run by root.

Note:
If you get any trouble here, please have a look into the Apache log files (in my case in "/var/log/apache2/error.log"). If you see something there like

[Sat Jul 20 14:56:15.132380 2019] [ssl:emerg] [pid 13320] AH02561: Failed to configure certificate myserv:443:0, check /etc/ssl/servercerts/servercert.pem
[Sat Jul 20 14:56:15.132404 2019] [ssl:emerg] [pid 13320] SSL Library Error: error:140AB18E:SSL routines:SSL_CTX_use_certificate:ca md too weak
AH00016: Configuration Failed
[Sat Jul 20 15:00:53.251242 2019] [ssl:emerg] [pid 14285] AH02561: Failed to configure certificate myserv:443:0, check /etc/ssl/servercerts/servercert.pem
[Sat Jul 20 15:00:53.251268 2019] [ssl:emerg] [pid 14285] SSL Library Error: error:140AB18E:SSL routines:SSL_CTX_use_certificate:ca md too weak
AH00016: Configuration Failed

then you are confronted with a point I mentioned in my first article. The error message criticizes that the "md"-hashing algorithm is too weak. But didn't we use SHA256?

Well, you meant to do so - because it my have been shown as the option chosen by default for the "Digest". And you did not change this setting. However, if you did not click the radio button explicitly after some other value you may not have gotten what you saw. Without your explicit interaction with the radio buttons the default is "md". So, it is important for all certificates to explicitly choose a different value first and then click on the right radio button for a digest again. The same is true for the setting of the key length and other options.

For other services than Apache2 you would basically proceed in an analogous way. So far - so good. Unfortunately, our approach is still not good enough!

How to make a CA certificate pem file system wide and permanently available on Opensuse Leap 15.x?

One of the most frustrating things that may happen to you is that you think everything you changed works now and then - after a system restart - you find a mess of non-starting or working services again. Well, this is exactly what happens if you just place a CA's certificate (pem) file into the location "/etc/ssl/certs". Just try a reboot; you will find that the file /etc/ssl/certs/anraconc-CA.pem" does not start any more afterwards - with severe consequences for the services referring to it.

"/etc/ssl/certs" is in so far a reasonable central directory as legacy applications may read it for CA certificates. So, one would use it also for our TLS/SSL-dependent server services. Especially, because you may really find it as a default in some configuration files.

The location "/etc/ssl/certs" actually is a link to "/var/lib/ca-certificates/pem" which will not help much as the contents of this directory is refreshed after each system restart, too. I was too lazy to analyze this in detail. However, you find some information in the scripts under "/usr/lib/ca-certificates/update.d/".

Another substantial piece of information is provided by the the answer to a related question at "Stack Exchange" : how-do-i-install-a-system-wide-ssl-certificate-on-opensuse.

Here, as well as in one of the "update.d"-files, the directory "/etc/pki/trust/anchors" is mentioned as a suitable place to save CA certificate files by the admin for system wide usage. So, we may think that it is enough to copy our CA pem file into the directory "/etc/pki/trust/anchors/".

Before you get frustrated again: The "trust"-program which among other things refreshes "/etc/ssl/certs" is intelligent:
It extracts the "Common Name" from the certificate and uses it to name the pem-file which it writes at system start into "/etc/ssl/certs".

So, here are the rules if all your SSL-based services shall be configured to read your trusted CA certificate at "/etc/ssl/certs":

  1. Place your CA's certificate file (as exported from TinyCA2) into "/etc/pki/trust/anchors" (and if you have sub-CAs also their certificate files!)
  2. Then refer to the file "/etc/ssl/certs/CAs_COMMON_NAME.pem" - where CAs_COMMON_NAM is the common name you used when you set up your CA. Do not use any other name you may originally have given your exported CA certificate (pem) files.

In our case we need the file name "anraconc-CA.pem". So, this is already consistent with the name which we chose at export time in the first article. However, this happened by chance, only. We could have chosen quite a different name for the pem-file. (Well, I knew about the pitfall 🙂 )

If you had given your file a name like "myCA-cacert.pem", you would experience some trouble after having placed it into "/etc/pki/trust/anchors" and referred to it in CA chain configuration settings for any service by "/etc/ssl/certs/myCA-cacert.pem". Despite the files name "myCA-cacert.pem" it would in our case appear in "/etc/ssl/certs" with the name "anraconc-CA.pem". It took me a little while to figure this out !

SSL-reconfiguration for OpenLDAP and missing rights for the system user "ldap"

After we have made our CA certificate permanent, we proceed to the reconfiguration of the OpenLDAP service. This is a bit more complicated due to two reasons: There are potentially more configuration files to take care of and there may appear a problem with read rights. In addition you have to think of the "sssd.service" for providing encrypted connections to clients for authentication services - here for LDAP-clients.

The first point depends a bit on your specific configuration. There may be a file "/etc/ldap.conf" (controlling local LDAP-clients). In my case I had to change the entry for "tls_cacertfile":

bind_policy soft
uri ldap://myserv.anraconc.de
base dc=anraconc,dc=de
nss_map_attribute uniqueMember member
ssl start_tls
pam_password exop
pam_filter objectClass=posixAccount
tls_cacertdir /etc/ssl/certs
tls_cacertfile /etc/ssl/certs/anraconc-CA.pem
....
...

However, your main configuration will probably reside in "/etc/openldap/". There is also a "/etc/openldap/ldap.conf", which we need to modify:

tls_cacert      /etc/ssl/certs/anraconc-CA.pem

Then we have in addition the central file "slapd.conf" which must get proper TLS/SSL entries :

...
TLSCACertificateFile /etc/ssl/certs/anraconc-CA.pem
TLSCertificateFile /etc/ssl/servercerts/servercert.pem
TLSCertificateKeyFile /etc/ssl/servercerts/serverkey.pem
...

Hint: On Opensuse systems the file "/etc/sysconfig/openldap" should also contain a line:

...
OPENLDAP_START_LDAP="yes"
...
## Type:           yesno
## Default:        no
## ServiceRestart: ldap
# If set to "yes" the "ldap over ssl" feature of slapd will be enabled. Don't
# forget to add the "TLSCertificateFile" and "TLSCertificateKeyFile" options 
# to the /etc/openldap/slapd.conf (man slapd.conf).
# Note: Don't confuse this with "START_TLS", the preferred method for 
#       making encrypted LDAP connections, which is enabled as soon as You
#       specify "TLSCertificateFile" and "TLSCertificateKeyFile" in your config
#       file
#
OPENLDAP_START_LDAPS="yes"
...

But setting the right value for "TLSCACertificateFile" in "/etc/openldap/ldap.conf" is not enough:

The SSL settings also play a decisive role in the file "cn=config.ldif" (in "/etc/openldap/slapd.d/") as the core of modern LDAP services is configured by ldif-files.

Warning:
When editing the file "cn= config.ldif" file you have to be extremely careful. Make a backup first! One normally should not edit this file directly!. But as our LDAP service is not running any more we are brave and use

myserv:/etc/openldap/slapd.d # vi cn\=config.ldif

(Note the escaping backslash.

Then you edit the following entries

...
olcTLSCACertificateFile: /etc/ssl/certs/anraconc-CA.pem
olcTLSCertificateFile: /etc/ssl/servercerts/servercert.pem
olcTLSCertificateKeyFile: /etc/ssl/servercerts/serverkey.pem
....

This may afterwards lead to some warnings in log files regarding the checksum for this file. You could correct this later on by using "ldapmodify" to reedit the entries again on the then (hopefully) running LDAP-server.

Unfortunately, a service restart leads to trouble:

myserv:/etc/openldap/slapd.d # rcslapd restart
Job for slapd.service failed because the control process exited with error code.
See "systemctl  status slapd.service" and "journalctl  -xe" for details.

myserv:/etc/openldap/slapd.d # rcslapd status
● slapd.service - OpenLDAP Server Daemon
   Loaded: loaded (/usr/lib/systemd/system/slapd.service; enabled; vendor preset: disabled)
   Active: failed (Result: exit-code) since Sat 2019-07-20 16:45:37 CEST; 45s ago
  Process: 13254 ExecStart=/usr/lib/openldap/start (code=exited, status=1/FAILURE)
 Main PID: 11608 (code=exited, status=0/SUCCESS)

Jul 20 16:45:37 myserv slapd[13254]: main: TLS init def ctx failed: -1
Jul 20 16:45:37 myserv slapd[13254]: slapd stopped.
Jul 20 16:45:37 myserv slapd[13254]: connections_destroy: nothing to destroy.
Jul 20 16:45:37 myserv start[13254]: Starting ldap-server
Jul 20 16:45:37 myserv systemd[1]: slapd.service: Control process exited, code=exited status=1
Jul 20 16:45:37 myserv systemd[1]: Failed to start OpenLDAP Server Daemon.
Jul 20 16:45:37 myserv systemd[1]: slapd.service: Unit entered failed state.
Jul 20 16:45:37 myserv systemd[1]: slapd.service: Failed with result 'exit-code'.

You see the message in the middle? main: TLS init def ctx failed: -1

Now, you could google. It will not help much! It took me some time to find out that I simply had a rights problem! I saw this when comparing the old contents of /etc/ssl/servercerts" from a backup with the new one:

myserv:/etc/ssl # la servercerts.orig
total 16
drwxr-xr-x  2 root root 4096 May 30  2013 .
drwxr-xr-x  7 root root 4096 Jul 20 15:03 ..
-rw-r--r--  1 root root 2155 Jul 10  2017 servercert.pem
-rw-------+ 1 root root 3272 Jul 10  2017 serverkey.pem
myserv:/etc/ssl # la servercerts
total 16
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 Jul 20 16:40 .
drwxr-xr-x 7 root root 4096 Jul 20 15:03 ..
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 2492 Jul 20 15:19 servercert.pem
-rw------- 1 root root 3243 Jul 20 15:22 serverkey.pem

You see the tiny difference? The "+" - sign in the original rights?
Oops! ACL-settings? What for?

myserv:/etc/ssl # getfacl servercerts.orig/serverkey.pem 
# file: servercerts.orig/serverkey.pem
# owner: root
# group: root
user::rw-
user:ldap:r--
group::r--
mask::r--
other::---

OK! lets try this for the user "ldap" in the new setup:

 
myserv:/etc/ssl # setfacl -m u:ldap:r servercerts/serverkey.pem 
myserv:/etc/ssl # setfacl -m g::- servercerts/serverkey.pem
myserv:/etc/ssl # getfacl servercerts/serverkey.pem 
# file: servercerts/serverkey.pem
# file: servercerts/serverkey.pem
# owner: root
# group: root
user::rw-
user:ldap:r--
group::---
group:root:---
mask::r--
other::---

myserv:/etc/ssl # systemctl restart slapd.service
myserv:/etc/ssl # systemctl status slapd.service
● slapd.service - OpenLDAP Server Daemon
   Loaded: loaded (/usr/lib/systemd/system/slapd.service; enabled; vendor preset: disabled)
   Active: active (running) since Sat 2019-07-20 17:00:21 CEST; 5s ago
  Process: 15869 ExecStart=/usr/lib/openldap/start (code=exited, status=0/SUCCESS)
 Main PID: 15889 (slapd)
    Tasks: 3 (limit: 4915)
   CGroup: /system.slice/slapd.service
           └─15889 /usr/sbin/slapd -h ldap:/// ldaps:/// ldapi:/// -F /etc/openldap/slapd.d -u ldap -g ldap -o slp=off

Jul 20 17:00:21 myserv systemd[1]: Stopped OpenLDAP Server Daemon.
Jul 20 17:00:21 myserv systemd[1]: Starting OpenLDAP Server Daemon...
Jul 20 17:00:21 myserv slapd[15869]: @(#) $OpenLDAP: slapd 2.4.46 $
                                          opensuse-buildservice@opensuse.org
Jul 20 17:00:21 myserv slapd[15869]: ldif_read_file: checksum error on "/etc/openldap/slapd.d/cn=config.ldif"
Jul 20 17:00:21 myserv slapd[15869]: ldif_read_file: checksum error on "/etc/openldap/slapd.d/cn=config/olcDatabase={0}config.ldif"
Jul 20 17:00:21 myserv slapd[15889]: slapd starting
Jul 20 17:00:21 myserv start[15869]: Starting ldap-server
Jul 20 17:00:21 myserv systemd[1]: Started OpenLDAP Server Daemon.
myserv:/etc/ssl # 

Obviously, the user "ldap" needs read rights on the (private) key of the server certificate!
Note that the user which runs the slapd.service may have a different name on your system - e.g. "openldap".

One can dispute whether ACLs is a reasonable way to handle this problem. Of course you could try and do something else. For other services I found in backups for older SuSE installations a special group "tls" which contained root and system users which needed read rights. This group was then assigned to "/etc/ssl/servercerts/serverkey.pem".

E.g. in case you are concerned about any of these solutions you could create a separate special certificate for the LDAP service and place the key in a special directory with read access rights for the file limited to root and the user "ldap". Of course, in this case, the service's configuration files must be adjusted for all TLS/SSL relevant data. However, before you follow such an approach of different certificates for services on one and the same server, think a bit about side consequences. As the FQDN of the server has to be identical to the certificate's common name you would have to issue certificates for different common names of your various server services.
This in turn makes your network and DNS configuration more complicated - you either need to associate one IP with multiple FQDNs or provide multiple IPs for one and the same server. To avoid such trouble I would rather combine this with a container approach for each separate service.

Adjusting the configuration of the SSSD-service

Having a running LDAP service does not mean that external clients can access it. On modern systems the exchange of auth-information between clients and server services is often handled by the "sssd"-service. This is true in my case, too. Therefore, a running slapd will not be sufficient if we use the LDAP-service for authentication from some clients in the network. We need to adjust the sssd-configuration, too. The relevant file is "/etc/sssd/sssd.conf" :

...
[sssd]
config_file_version = 2
services = nss,pam
domains = default
# SSSD will not start if you do not configure any domains.
# Add new domain configurations as [domain/<NAME>] sections, and
[nss]
filter_groups = root
filter_users = root
[pam]
# Section created by YaST
[domain/default]
ldap_uri = ldap://myserv.anraconc.de
ldap_search_base = dc=anraconc,dc=de
ldap_schema = rfc2307bis
id_provider = ldap
ldap_user_uuid = entryuuid
ldap_group_uuid = entryuuid
;ldap_id_use_start_tls = True
ldap_id_use_start_tls = False
enumerate = True
chpass_provider = ldap
auth_provider = ldap
cache_credentials = False

ldap_tls_cacertdir = /etc/ssl/certs
ldap_tls_cacert = /etc/ssl/certs/anraconc-CA.pem
....
...

Again, the most important settings are done in the last 2 lines displayed.
The setting for start_tls is up to you. If you use "start_tls" then the OpenLDAP configuration must provide the necessary entries.

Note: You have to provide similar sssd-settings on external LDAP-client-systems! One such client could be an email/imap-server - we shall have a look at its configuration in the next article.

On "myserv" we restart the "sssd.service":

myserv:/etc/ssl # vi /etc/sssd/sssd.conf
myserv:/etc/ssl # rcsssd restart
myserv:/etc/ssl # systemctl status sssd.service 
● sssd.service - System Security Services Daemon
   Loaded: loaded (/usr/lib/systemd/system/sssd.service; enabled; vendor preset: disabled)
   Active: active (running) since Sat 2019-07-20 17:29:11 CEST; 18s ago
 Main PID: 20021 (sssd)
    Tasks: 4 (limit: 4915)
   CGroup: /system.slice/sssd.service
           ├─20021 /usr/sbin/sssd -i --logger=files
           ├─20022 /usr/lib/sssd/sssd_be --domain default --uid 0 --gid 0 --logger=files
           ├─20023 /usr/lib/sssd/sssd_nss --uid 0 --gid 0 --logger=files
           └─20024 /usr/lib/sssd/sssd_pam --uid 0 --gid 0 --logger=files

Jul 20 17:29:10 myserv systemd[1]: Starting System Security Services Daemon...
Jul 20 17:29:10 myserv sssd[20021]: Starting up
Jul 20 17:29:11 myserv sssd[be[20022]: Starting up
Jul 20 17:29:11 myserv sssd[20024]: Starting up
Jul 20 17:29:11 myserv sssd[20023]: Starting up
Jul 20 17:29:11 myserv systemd[1]: Started System Security Services Daemon.

Conclusion

We can use TinyCA2 to replace the missing YaST-feature for an effective administration both of CAs and server certificates. The major work has to be done in adjusting the configuration of the services. But after the method for installing a CA certificate server wide and permanently became clear the service configuration became reduced to a more or less dumb editing job. This job could be delegated to a script; but be careful to check the specific names of the relevant SSL/TLS entries for each service!

A special challenge came with the LDAP service; the related system user must get read rights to the used server certificate's private key!

In the next and final article of this series

TinyCA2 as a replacement for YaST’s CA-tools on Opensuse Leap servers with TLS/SSL – III

we shall have a look at the reconfiguration of a cyrus and posfix service on a different server "mymail", which would then be a client for the LDAP service on "myserv" (for the authentication of IMAP/SMTP-users). .

Links

Server wide and permanent installation of a trusted CA's certificate
stackexchange.com: how-do-i-install-a-system-wide-ssl-certificate-on-opensuse